Common causes of Vertigo / Dizziness
- Meniere’s disease – This is caused by increase in the pressure of the fluid present in the inner ear. The patient has spells of vertigo, ringing in the ear and hearing loss usually in one ear.
- Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo [BPPV] – This is caused by a stone –like particle [otolith] in the inner ear which irritates the nerve of balance on going to a particular position. The patient experiences attacks of severe spinning on turning the head to a particular position.
- Vestibular neuritis – this is caused by infection of the nerve of balance. The patient presents with intense nausea and vomiting along with vertigo. It may last a few days leading the patient to be confined to bed.
- Migraine – Patients usually identify migraine with headaches. But migraine may also present in the form of vertigo or dizziness. Medical treatment would be required for these patients.
- Ototoxicity – Some medicines may cause damage to the nerves of balance or hearing causing dizziness and hearing loss. Some of the commonly used medicines which are ototoxic include aspirin, anti-malarial drugs, drugs used in treatment of TB and antibiotics which end with –mycin suffix.